Species/Subspecies: Candida albicans
Categories: Animal pathogen; human pathogen
Etymology: Genus name: white.
Species epithet: be white.
Significance:  [Very important]   
Geographic distribution: Has a global distribution
Taxonomy:
PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenus
AscomycotaSaccharomycetesSaccharomycetalesSaccharomycetaceaeCandida
 
Macromorphology (smell): C. albicans is dimorphic and the colonies are creamish white, opaque and circular, when it grows like yeast on an agar plate.
Micromorphology: C. albicans is a kind of yeast that forms so-called pseudohyphae.
Reproduction:Man trodde länge att C. albicans var stabilt diploid och enbart förökar sig asexuellt genom avknoppning liksom många andra jästsvampar. Man har dock kunnat visa att denna svamp kan övergå till att vara haploid. De haploida cellerna kan sedan tillsammans med andra haploida celler av motsatt parningstyp bilda diploida celler (s.k. klamydiaspores).
Enzymes: Urease +
Spec. Char.:
Reservoir: Plant material and the gut of animals and humans.
Disease/effect: Belongs to the normal flora, but may cause severe infections in immuncompromised individuals.
Hosts/materialDisease/effectClinical picture or result
Pigs, calves and foalsCandidiasisGasto-oesophageal ulcers
Pups, kittens and foalsCandidiasis (mycotic stomatitis)Inflammation of the mouth and lips
CalvesCandidiasis (rumenitis)Inflammation of the rumen
DogsCandidiasis (enteritis and skin lesions)Inflammation of the small intestine and the skin
ChickensCandidiasis (trush)Trush of the oesophagus and crop
Geese and turkeysCandidiasisCloacal and vent infections
CowsCandidiasisReduced fertility, abortion, mastitis
MaresCandidiasis (pyometra)Pus forming uterine inflammation
CatsCandidiasisCystitis, pyothorax
Cats and horsesCandidiasisOcular lesions
Dogs, cats, pigs and calvesDisseminated candidiasisThe infection has spread to other organs than the origin
HumansCandidiasis (trush)Inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes (e.g. in the mouth and on the tongue)
Virulence Factors: Extracellular and cytotoxic phospholipases and proteases. Candida spp. can vary the expression of surface antigens, which allows them to escape the immune defense of the host animal. C. albicans is the most common fungus that can be isolated from biofilms.
Diagnostics: Presence of C. albicans in the tissue lesion must be shown by direct examination or histological evaluation.
Genome Sequence:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/Isolate# of chromSize (Mbp)Ref
GCF_000182965 SC5314 14.3 # 1
C. albicans kan vara haploid, diploid eller tetraploid. The genome sequence refers to the haploid form.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/IsolateNumber of BPRef
NC_018046 L757 33 928 # 59
Circular DNA

18S rRNA Seq:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/IsolateNumber of NT
NG_070791 CBS 562 1787 

Taxonomy/phylogeny: More than 200 species have been described within genus Candida.
Reference(s): No. 4, 16, 25
Link: Candida Genome Database
Updated:2021-09-02

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Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences