Species/Subspecies: Penicillium verrucosum subsp. verrucosum
Categories: Toxic for animals; toxic for humans; spoilage organism
Etymology: Genus name: paint brush.
Species epithet: scaly/warty.
Subspecies epithet: see Species epithet.
Significance:  [Very important]   
Geographic distribution: Occurs in temperate and colder climates in e.g. northern Europe, North America and southern South America.
Macromorphology (smell):
Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium verrucosum 
Slow-growing. It may take a week for a colony to grow about 20 mm in diameter. The mycelium is white and the conidia are gray-green to dull green. Has a pungent earthy odour.
Penicillium verrucosum
The conidia have smooth walls and a diameter of 2.5-3.0 μm. The conidia have first an ellipsoidal shape, which later changes to globular.
Spec. Char.: Psychrophilic. Optimal temperature for germination is 21-23°C.
Hosts/substrateDisease/effectClinical picture or result
Cereal crops.SpoilageContamination of mycotoxins.
Pigs Poisoning (porcine nephropathy), resulting in degenerative renal changes.Excessive water consumption and urine production (polydipsia and polyuria).
PoultryPoisoning, resulting in degenerative renal changes.Decreased egg production.
Människa (som äter kontaminerade livsmedel).PoisoningKidney disease, cancer and possible effects on the nervous system, especially in the fetus.
Virulence Factors: The organism produces ochratoxin A (OTA), which is a very poisonous mycotoxin, and citrine. Ochratoxin A is probably both carcinogenic and neurotoxic.
Genome Sequence:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/Isolate# of chromSize (Mbp)Ref
GCA_000970515 BFE808  30.2 # 36

Mitochondrial DNA sequence:  -
18S rRNA Seq:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/IsolateNumber of NT
JN938976 DAOM 221128 1075 

ITS regions:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/IsolateNumber of NTGenes
NR_119495 FRR 965TM 609 18S rRNA, ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS 2, 28S rRNA 

Taxonomy/phylogeny: Six variants (or subspecies) of P. verrucosum has been described: album, corymbiferum, cyclopium, melanochlorum, ochraceum and verrucosum. These varieties differ in their different colony colours.
Comment:If grain is stored improperly, this mold can grow and produce OTA. OTA is not produced at a humidity below 18% and temperatures above 28°C.
Reference(s): No. 4, 37

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