|| Penicillium verrucosum subsp. verrucosum|
||Toxic for animals; toxic for humans; spoilage organism|
||Genus name: paint brush.
Species epithet: scaly/warty.
Subspecies epithet: see Species epithet.
|Significance:|| [Very important]
||Occurs in temperate and colder climates in e.g. northern Europe, North America and southern South America.
|Slow-growing. It may take a week for a colony to grow about 20 mm in diameter. The mycelium is white and the conidia are gray-green to dull green.
Has a pungent earthy odour.
||The conidia have smooth walls and a diameter of 2.5-3.0 μm. The conidia have first an ellipsoidal shape, which later changes to globular.
||Psychrophilic. Optimal temperature for germination is 21-23°C.|
|Hosts/substrate||Disease/effect||Clinical picture or result|
|Cereal crops.||Spoilage||Contamination of mycotoxins.|
|Pigs ||Poisoning (porcine nephropathy), resulting in degenerative renal changes.||Excessive water consumption and urine production (polydipsia and polyuria).|
|Poultry||Poisoning, resulting in degenerative renal changes.||Decreased egg production.|
|Människa (som äter kontaminerade livsmedel).||Poisoning||Kidney disease, cancer and possible effects on the nervous system, especially in the fetus. |
||The organism produces ochratoxin A (OTA), which is a very poisonous mycotoxin, and citrine. Ochratoxin A is probably both carcinogenic and neurotoxic.|
|Mitochondrial DNA sequence:
|18S rRNA Seq:
|ACC-No GenBank||Strain/Isolate||Number of NT|
|JN938976 ||DAOM 221128 ||1075 |
|ACC-No GenBank||Strain/Isolate||Number of NT||Genes|
|NR_119495 ||FRR 965TM ||609 ||18S rRNA, ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS 2, 28S rRNA |
||Six variants (or subspecies) of P. verrucosum has been described: album, corymbiferum, cyclopium, melanochlorum, ochraceum and verrucosum. These varieties differ in their different colony colours.
|Comment:||If grain is stored improperly, this mold can grow and produce OTA. OTA is not produced at a humidity below 18% and temperatures above 28°C.|
||No. 4, 37|