Species/Subspecies: Aspergillus fumigatus
Categories: Animal pathogen; human pathogen; toxic for animals; toxic for humans
Etymology: Genus name: to scatter.
Species epithet: smoky.
Alternative Species Name(s):Neosartorya fumigata, which is the name of the teleomorph of this fungus, should not be used, however, as the anamorph name Aspergillus takes precedence for the entire genus Aspergillus. Which is decided by the fungal community.
Significance:A. fumigatus is particularly worrying in the poultry industry because the animals in large flocks can be exposed to large amounts of spores and then suffer from disease.
Macromorphology (smell):
Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus fumigatus 
The colonies are greyish to blue-green in colour and have a cotton or wool-like texture. A single colony con cover the complete surface of an agar plate in a couple of days.
Aspergillus fumigatusAspergillus fumigatus
The conidia are greyish green and 2-3 µm in diameter,
Metabolism: Asparagillus spp. are aerobic and chemorganoheterotrophic organisms. They are extremely important in degrading organic matter in nature.
Reproduction:Förökar sig huvudsakligen med konidier, som produceras i tusental och är luftburna. Kan dock även föröka sig sexuellt genom askosporer.
Spec. Char.: A. fumigatus is thermotolerant and can grow at a temperature up to 55°C. Conidia will survive at temperature up to 70°C.
Reservoir: A. fumigatus is ubiquitous in the environment and can be found in soil and decaying organic material (e.g. in compost heaps).
Disease/effect: Aspergillosis is mainly an airway infection, affecting individuals with weakened immune systems and poultry that often live in an environment with a large amount of spores in the air.
Hosts/substrateDisease/effectClinical picture or result
Poultry and other birds kept in captivityAspergillosis (brooder pneumonia)Respiratory infection
RuminantsAspergillosisBovine mycotic abortion
HorseAspergillosisGuttural pouch mycosis
DogAspergillosisSinonasal infection
CatAspergillosisNasal infection
Humans with a normal immune system.AspergillosisRespiratory infection
Humans with a weakened immune systemInvasive aspergillosisInfection, which spreads from the lungs to other organs (brain, heart, kidneys and skin).
Virulence Factors: Mykotoxiner: fumitromogener, verruculogen och gliatoxin.
Diagnostics: Diagnosis based on culture is not sufficient, as Aspergillus spp. can be isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy animals and they (and we) are constantly exposed to spores of these organisms.
Genome Sequence:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/Isolate# of chromSize (Mbp)Ref
GCA_000002655 Af293 29.4 # 2
A. fumigatus är haploid.

Mitochondrial DNA sequence:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/IsolateNumber of BP
NC_017016 A1163 30 696 
Cirkulärt DNA

18S rRNA Seq:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/IsolateNumber of NT
LC485158 ATCC 13073 1733 

ITS regions:
ACC-No GenBankStrain/IsolateNumber of NTGenes
NC_121481 ATCC 1022TM 707 18S rRNA, ITS 1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS 2, 28S rRNA 

Taxonomy/phylogeny: Aspergillus is a very large genus, which consists of about 250 species.
Comment:A. fumigatus is both a primary pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen, but also a very important allergen.

Aspergillos can also be caused by the closely related species: närbesläktade arterna: A. flavus, A. niger, A. nidulans and A. terreus, which, however, is more unusual.

Reference(s): No. 4, 9, 20

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